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CE marking

CE marking shall mean a marking by which the manufacturer indicates that the product is in conformity with the applicable requirements set out in Community harmonisation legislation providing for its affixing.

CCF, Common Cause Failure

A situation where several subsystems fail due to a single event. All failures are caused by the event itself and are not consequences of each other.


Deutsche Akkreditierungsstelle. Is the German organization for inspection, assessment and supervision of the competency of laboratories, certification and inspection bodies. Is member of the ILAC (International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation), the international cooperation of laboratory and inspection accreditation bodies.

DC, Diagnostic Coverage

Describes the effectiveness of fault monitoring of a system or subsystem. It is the ratio (0 – 100%) between the failure rate of detected dangerous failures and the failure rate of total dangerous failures.


Electric/Electronic/Programmable Electronic Systems

EETS, European Electronic Toll Service

The European Electronic Toll Service (EETS) will ensure interoperability of tolling services on the entire European Union road network. EETS will enable road users to easily pay tolls throughout the whole EU with only one subscription contract with one service provider and a single on-board unit. By limiting cash transactions at toll stations and eliminating cumbersome procedures for occasional users, EETS will facilitate daily operations for road users, improve traffic flow and reduce congestion.

EHSR, Essential Health and Safety Requirements

Requirements that machinery must meet in order to comply with the European Union Machinery Directive and thereby obtain CE marking. These requirements are listed in the Machinery Directive’s Annex I.


Stands for European Standard (EuroNorm).

FMEA, Failure mode and effect analysis

Is a systematic technique for failure analysis. A FMEA is often the first step of a system reliability study. It involves reviewing as many components, assemblies, and subsystems as possible to identify failure modes, and their causes and effects. For each component, the failure modes and their resulting effects on the rest of the system are recorded in a specific FMEA worksheet. A FMEA is used to structure mitigation for risk reduction based on either failure (mode) effect severity reduction or based on lowering the probability of failure or both.

FS, Functional Safety

Functional Safety is part of the overall safety that depends on a system or equipment operating correctly in response to its inputs.


Physical injury or damage to health.

Harmonized standard

Harmonized standard shall mean a standard adopted by one of the European standardisation bodies listed in Annex I to Directive 98/34/EC on the basis of a request made by the Commission in accordance with Article 6 of that Directive.


Potential source of harm.

IEC, International Electrotechnical Commission

A worldwide organization for standardization that consists of national electrotechnical committees (

ISO, International Organization for Standardization

A worldwide federation of national standards member bodies (

MTTFd, Mean Time To dangerous Failure

Expectation of the average time for a dangerous failure to occur.

NRTL, Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratories

NRTLs are third-party organizations recognized by OSHA as having the capability to provide product safety testing and certification services to the manufacturers of a wide range of products for use in the American workplace. The testing and certifications are based on product safety standards developed by U.S.-based standards developing organizations and often issued by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI).


Occupational Safety and Health Administration

PFHd, Probability of dangerous Failure per Hour

Average probability of dangerous failure taking place during one (1) hour. PFHd is the value that is used for determining the SIL or PL value of a safety function.

PL, Performance Level

Levels (a, b, c, d, e) for specifying the capability of a safety system to perform a safety function under foreseeable conditions.


Required Performance Level (based on risk evaluation).


A combination of how possible it is for the harm to happen and how severe the harm would be.


Real Time Operating System


This is freedom from unacceptable risk of physical injury or of damage to the health of people, either directly or indirectly as a result of damage to property or to the environment.

Safety function

A function designed for adding safety to a machine whose failure can result in an immediate increase in risk(s).

SIL, Safety Integrity Level

Levels (1, 2, 3, 4) for specifying the capability of an electrical safety system to perform a safety function under foreseeable conditions. Only levels 1-3 are used in machinery.

SILCL, SIL Claim Limit

Maximum Safety Integrity Level (SIL) that can be claimed for an electrical safety system, taking account of architectural constraints and systematic safety integrity.


A component of a safety function that has its own safety level (SIL/PL) that affects the safety level of the whole safety function. If any of the subsystems fail, the whole safety function fails.


TÜV Rheinland of North America, Inc.


Vereinigung der Großkesselbesitzer e.V. (European technical industrial union for electricity and heat generation, located in Essen/Germany)

to be continued

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